How about looking at the natural aspects of the the region? If it is in the desert, by the sounds of your initial description, there are many natural features typical of the region.
Many have evolved with the conditions that exist, the movement of water for instance, its causes during periods of say flash flooding. Likewise, with the limited rainfall how has that informed methods of building and or the architecture of that region?
The effect of wind and sand on rock surfaces. The temperatures etc.
You should also examine the origins and the significance of some of the features that are repeated in the region's vernacular. This may inform your research as well as design. Wind towers for instance are typical of desert and Middle Eastern countries, is there a reason for them being built? What is the significance of scuppers in that region. These elements are not pasted on the facade as decoration nor as ornamentation or for no reason.
Guneet, there are so many possibilities with theme.
You should also get some precedents of older architecture or vernacular structures and also, some of the more successful designs in that region.